Forest Flux services can be divided to three groups: EO based forest structural variables, Carbon storage and flux and Organizational carbon balance.
The forest structural variable services provide information on forest area and forest status and their changes. The inventory type services provide information from one target year, whereas the monitoring services provide information from several years and about the changes of the forest between the years.
Carbon storage and flux services provide information on the biomass and carbon balance of the forests. Carbon (C) stocks and fluxes are computed at one target year (inventory) and also across several years (monitoring), providing forest growth and C balance forecasts.
The organizational carbon balance service builds on the previous service layers: forest structural variable estimation and carbon storage and fluxes. A one new component adds to them: the wood harvested from the forest and manufactured into wood-based products.
|EO based forest structural variables||Carbon storage and flux||Organizational carbon balance|
|Forest Flux service||1. Forest Inventory
2. Forest Monitoring
3. Forest ecology inventory
4. Forest ecology monitoring
|5. Biomass and carbon inventory
6. Yearly or seasonal averaged carbon flux
7. Biomass and carbon flux monitoring and forecast
|8. Total annual/seasonal carbon balance of a forest owning organization|
Service 1 ‘Forest inventory’ provides forest cover maps and estimates on forest variables that have been traditionally measured in the field. The information includes e.g. tree height, basal area, stem diameter, stem volume, density, and tree species.
In service 2, ‘Forest monitoring’, the forest variable service is implemented for several years or on defined intervals. Forest monitoring service also provides information on forest change. The products include forest cover change, harvest, and damages on the forest.
Service 3 ‘Forest ecology inventory’ service includes two types of products: fragmentation and structural diversity products. The products of this service are computed from outputs of forest inventory service for a selected vector data set, typically a grid using a GIS software. This service component will first be further developed and will only be included in the service offer in the second service provision phase.
Service 4 ‘Forest ecology monitoring’ service produces fragmentation and structural diversity products for several time instants or as change products. This service component will first be further developed and will only be included in the service offer in the second service provision phase.
For Service 5 ‘biomass and carbon inventory’, forest structural variables derived from Service 1 are the inputs for PRELES, providing forest biomass and C balance cover maps and estimates. The information includes e.g. above and below ground biomass, soil C stocks, and vegetation carbon.
For Service 6 ‘yearly or seasonal averaged carbon flux’, modelling services include estimates of carbon fluxes at seasonal and annual time steps, e.g. GPP, NPP, NEE. PREBAS allows identifying areas of carbon sink and source, and monitoring particular vegetation stresses, such as water stress.
In Service 7 ‘biomass and carbon flux monitoring and forecast’, Biomass and carbon fluxes are monitored for certain period of years, and forecasts about forest growth are provided accounting for the impact of climatic and environmental changes. The products of service 2 will be used to continuously update model estimates and forecasts by means of data assimilation.
Service 8 ’total annual/seasonal carbon balance of a forest owning organization’ answers questions: ”What is my forest like?” followed by ”How much carbon do I have in my forest, and how did that change?” followed by ”How much carbon is there in my forest, and in the wood products that originate from the wood harvested from my forest?”
In order to calculate the organizational carbon balance, the carbon pools and the fluxes between the pools have to be considered. This analysis involves several actors of carbon sink and source:
Carbon pools and the fluxes between the pools included in the organizational carbon balance service. Adapted from Liski et al (2001).